Chlorination of methane by a substitution reaction

During the substitution reaction the hydrogen atoms of methane are substituted with chlorine atoms, the by-product is hydrogen chloride.

Soap

Fatty acid molecules consist of a polar head and a non-polar tail, therefore they are suitable for removing fat stains.

Formation of hydrogen molecules

Hydrogen atoms within hydrogen molecules are held together by a covalent bond.

Trench network (World War I)

Static warfare was one of the characteristics of WWI

Guillotine

The device designed to carry out executions more humanely than before was named after a French doctor.

B-17 Flying Fortress (USA, 1938)

The ´Flying Fortress´ was developed for the United States Army Air Force by Boeing

Tanning, skin cancer

The topmost layer of our skin is the epidermis, which contains melanocytes.

Jamestown (17th century)

Jamestown, founded in 1607, was the first permanent English settlement on the east coast of North America.

Supermarine Spitfire (United Kingdom, 1938)

Spitfire was a legendary British single-seat military aircraft used in World War II.

RT-2PM Topol Intercontinental ballistic missile (Soviet Union, 1985)

A mobile, nuclear-capable ballistic missile developed at the end of the Cold War.

Working-class district (19th century)

Typical working-class districts with unhealthy living conditions were built at the time of the Industrial Revolution.

Medieval dungeon

A wide variety of torture devices were in use in medieval dungeons.

Viking longship (10th century)

These excellent shipbuilders and sailors travelled great distances on the seas and rivers.

Cannon operation (18th century)

The cannon was an important type of firearms at the beginning of modern history, widespread both on land and water.

Archaeological excavation (pit house)

Large construction sites provide archaeologists searching for artefacts with a great deal of work.

Venice in the Middle Ages

Medieval Venice owed its wealth to its flourishing maritime trade.

Nitrogen cycle

Atmospherical nitrogen is bound by bacteria and used by living organisms in the form of various compounds.

Medieval smithy

The work of smiths – one of the first professions in history – became even more important in the Middle Ages.

Ziggurat (Ur, 3rd millennium BC)

Ziggurats were typical terraced step pyramids used as temples in ancient Mesopotamia.

Medieval farmhouse

Farmhouses in the Middle Ages were simple, single-storey structures built from earth, mud and wood.

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